eLearning  Theory

5 August 2013Posted by Sumitra Kan Fong Kuen


"When you make the finding yourself — even if you’re the      
     last person on Earth to see the light — you’ll never forget it."
— Carl Sagan (1934 — 1996)

The multimedia interactive package is a form of ecreated with the aim of providing the opportunity for self-learning which serve to provide:

  • an experience to acquire the skills to design, develop, manage and evaluate a web-based multimedia interactive packages
  • an opportunity to share ideas and information amongst the learning community
  • the data bank for self-learning modules and packages samples.

eLearning  theory - the  starting  point for  the  elearning  designers

5 August 2013Posted by Sumitra Kan Fong Kuen


Beard, Wilson & McCarter (2007) had proposed a theoritical foundation for constructing a well-design eLearning experience. It is understood that:

  • An experiential learning model (Gilbson, et al., 1985) that emphasis on how we process information which we receive in the form of sensual stimulus, we shall then interprete and responded appropriately.
  • The learning activities can be packaged into a CD-ROM which provides a variety resources and learning activities that simulates the lifelike experience.
  • Adopting the constructivistic approach where the learners are advised to participate in a wide range of activities that may lead to "learning and change".
  • Video may be used to support learning.

Read More 
Click here to open or download the article written by Beard, Wilson & McCarter. (2007). Towards a theory of e-Learning: experiential e-Learning.

from  theory  to  design  principles

5 August 2013Posted by Sumitra Kan Fong Kuen

The constructivist view the learning process as:

  • The learner actively constructs knowledge, through achieving understanding
  • Learning depends on what we already know, or what we can already do
  • Learning is self-regulated
  • Learning is goal-oriented
  • Learning is cumulative
(Mayes & de Freitas, 2004)

Mayes & de Freitas had summarized Paulsen's taxonomy of online learning tasks involves the following techniques and methods as follows:

Technique           Examples  of  Method
One-alone Online databases; online journals;  online applications;
 interest groups; software libraries.
One-to-one Learning contracts; apprenticeships; interviews, collaborative assignments, role plays
One-to-many Symposiums; lectures. role plays, interviews
Many-to many       Discussion groups, debates, games, simulations, case studies, brainstorming, Delphi, project groups
Table 1: Paulsen’s taxonomy of online learning tasks
(Source: Mayes & de Freitas. (2004). JISC eLearning Models desks study- Stage 2: review of elearning theories, framework and models.)

Peal and Wilson (2001) summarised the well-designed web-based learning environment as Zone of Proximal Development taht employs these features:
  1. Learning activities that are part of real or simulated activity systems, with close attention to the tools and interactions characteristic of actual situations.
  2. Structured interaction among participants.
  3. Guidance by an expert.
  4. The locus of control passes to the increasingly competent learners. 
(Mayes & de Freitas, 2004)

We may apply the ADDIE Model while designing the eLearning acitivities:
ADDIE modlel
The ADDIE Model
(SOurce: Chico State Instructional Design & Technology Society. (n.d.). ADDIE Model.)
Mayes, Terry & de Freitas, Sara. (2004). JISC eLearning Models desks study- Stage 2: review of elearning theories, framework and models. Retrieved August 5, 2013 from http://management-class.co.uk/education/stage2learningmodels.pdf